Sayers, Dorothy L. Creed or Chaos? (Manchester, NH: Sophia Institute Press, 1949, 1974).
Schaeffer, Francis A. The Mark of a Christian (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1970); A Christian Manifesto (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1981).
Schleiermacher, Friedrich. On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers, trans. John Oman (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1958); The Christian Faith trans. H.R. Macintosh and J.S. Stewart from the 2nd Germ. ed. (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976). A German Reformed minister and theologian in Berlin, Schleiermacher (1768-1834) dedicated himself to bridge the gap between church and culture, and to win the educated back to Christianity. He defined religion as "the feeling of absolute dependence," which he took as a 'point of contact' with unbelievers. Karl Barth considered Schleiermacher's On Religion, first published in 1799, to be the most important and influential book of 19th-century theology.
In The Humanity of God , Karl Barth explains where he thinks Schleiermacher went wrong: His "openness to the world meant (1) that through the open windows and doors came so much stimulation for thought and discussion that there was hardly time or love or zeal left for the task to be accomplished with the house itself… (2) that not a few doors inside were slammed which should have been kept open as well. Nineteenth-century theology ascribed normative character to the ideas of its environment [culture]…This meant (3) that fatal errors blew in, were admitted, and make themselves at home. These errors, far from being simply tolerated, enjoyed birthright, even authority" (p. 19). In addition, Barth claimed, the approach just didn't work: "The efforts of Schleiermacher and of his successors did not acquire any significance for the broad mass of the 'cultured' [and even less for the 'labor class']" (p. 22). Barth continues his critique by arguing that: (1) Christians are not called to seek a "general acceptance of the Christian faith" (p. 23); (2) It is always a mistake to be "more interested…in the benefits of Christ than in Christ Himself" (p. 24); (3) The emphasis of Schleiermacher and his followers directed attention away from the living God because: "their assumptions compelled them to understand faith as the realization of one form of man's spiritual life and self-awareness" (p. 26).
Schlesinger, Arthur M. The Disuniting of America (New York, NY: Norton, 1992).
Schlossberg, Herbert. Idols for Destruction: Christian Faith and Its Confrontation with American Society (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1990)
Shea, Nina. In the Lion's Den (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman, 1997). An international human rights lawyer with the renowned, secular rights organization, Freedom House, Ms. Shea has spent over a decade studying religious persecution around the world. For example, she has documented the abduction and death of more than one million victims in Sudan under the Islamic fundamentalist government (pp. 31-39). She says: "Millions of American Christians pray in their churches each week, oblivious to the fact that Christians in many parts of the world suffer brutal torture, arrest, imprisonment, and even death—their homes and communities laid waste—for no other reason than that they are Christian. The shocking, untold story of our time is that more Christians have died in this century simply for being Christians than in the past 19 centuries after the birth of Christ. They have been persecut-ed and martyred before an unknowing, indifferent world and a largely silent Christian community" (p. 1).
Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (London: Pan Books, 1960). In this classic text Shirer observes the close connection between Hitler's ideas in Mein Kampf and Darwin's theory of the "survival of the fittest": "Like Darwin …Hitler saw all life as an eternal struggle and the world as a jungle where the fittest survived and the strongest ruled" (p. 115).
Sire, James W. The Universe Next Door: A Basic World View Catalog (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1976).
Smith, Huston. Beyond the Postmodern Mind (Wheaton, IL: Theosophical, 1989).
Sowell, Thomas. The Vision of the Anointed: Self-Congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1995); A Conflict of Visions (New York, NY: Murrow, 1987).
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. "A World Split Apart," in Solzhenitsyn at Harvard: The Address, Twelve Early Responses, and Six Later Reflections, ed. Ronald Berman (Wash-ington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1980); The Mortal Danger: How Miscon-ceptions About Russia Imperil America, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1980). Solzhenitsyn, awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in 1970, gave the commencement address at Harvard in 1978. Michael Novak has called it "the most important religious document of our time;" the New York Times and other secular media have reviled it because: "He believes himself to be in possession of The Truth." Solzhenitsyn said that "a decline in courage" was "the most striking feature that an outside observer notices in the West today" (p. 5). He traced the American "cult of material well-being" to the false "humanism" of an Enlightenment worldview which proclaimed "man—the master of this world" and "the center of all;" which denied "the existence of intrinsic evil in man;" and which failed to see "any task higher than the attainment of happiness on earth" (pp. 9,16). He reminded his audience that "in American democracy at the time of its birth, all individual human rights were granted on the ground that man is God's creature," and that "freedom was given to the individual conditionally, in the assumption of his constant religious responsibility" (p. 17). Solzhenitsyn called for a renewal of personal discipline and "voluntary self-restraint," and "a new height of vision," concluding: "No one on earth has any way left but—upward" (pp. 19-20).
In The Mortal Danger Solzhenitsyn claims that the communist "police apparatus" killed some "60 million victims" in the first sixty years of communist rule in Russia (pp. 13, 23, 58). He contends that it is a mistake to equate Soviet communism with its 'Russian victims.' Furthermore, he argues against: "the failure to understand the radical hostility of communism to mankind as a whole—the failure to realize that communism is irredeemable, that there exist no 'better' variants" (pp. 1-2). Solzhenitsyn connects Lenin directly with enforcement of prison camps, as the author of "the future Article 58 of the Criminal Code, on which the whole of Stalin's Gulag was founded;" "and… the entire Red Terror and the repression of millions of peasants were formulated by Lenin and Trotsky" (p. 13). He contends that: "communism has always been most ruthless of all in its treatment of Christians and advocates of national rebirth" (p. 34).
Stott, John R.W. The Message of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7): Christian Counter-Culture (Downers Grove, IL.: InterVarsity Press, 1978); Involvement, Vol. I: Being a Responsible Christian in a Non-Christian Society; Vol. II: Social and Sexual Relationships in the Modern World (Old Tappan, NJ.: Fleming H. Revell, 1984-1985). In Vol. II of Involvement Dr. Stott, rector of All Souls Church in London, England, and director of the London Institute for Contemporary Christianity, has called for a "preference for the poor" in the church "as the community which is called to exemplify the ideals of the kingdom of God" (pp. 110-111). He has also called for repentance in the church: for "the greatest single offense regularly perpetrated in Britain today"—abortion (p. 211); for apathy, "acceptance of the unacceptable" (p. 250); and for "two particularly horrid sins": "pessimism" and "mediocrity" (pp. 263-64). Stott defines the "marks of leadership" which are so needed today as: (1) "Vision"- "compounded of a deep dissatisfaction with what is and a clear grasp of what could be;" (2) "Industry"- "passion and practicalities must go together;" (3) "Perseverance"- "not waver[ing] in [one's] basic conviction of what God has called him to do;" (4) "Service"- "people take precedence over projects;" (5) "Discipline"-'in particular the discipline with which [one] waits on God" (pp. 248-262). Stott often clarifies moral issues by reference to mankind's creation in the image of God.
Stout, Jeffrey. The Flight from Authority: Religion, Morality, and the Quest for Autonomy (Notre Dame, IN: U. Notre Dame Press, 1981).
Stringfellow, William. An Ethic for Christians and Other Aliens in a Strange Land (1973).